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Table 1 Long-term studies of social systems and population ecology in central and South America and Antarctica

From: The ecological value of long-term studies of birds and mammals in Central America, South America and Antarctica

Genus and species Common name Location of study Duration of study (years) Individually marked? Theme Key reference
Octodon degus Degu North-central Chile 12 years (2004–2016) Y Social systems [29]
Oligoryzomys longicaudatus Long-tailed rice rat Chile, rainforest 19 years (1979–1998) Y Social systems [65]
Lama guanicoe Guanaco Chilean Patagonia 10 years (1989–1999) Y Social systems [40]
Pithecia aequatorialis Equatorial sakis Ecuador 10 years (2004–2014) Y Social systems [32]
Pteronura brasiliensis Giant otter Peru 15 years (1991–2006) Y Social systems [36]
Ctenomys sociabilis Colonial tuco-tuco Argentina 20 years (1994–2004) Y Social systems [45]
Aptenodytes forsteri Emperor penguin Antarctica 54 years (1957–2010 N Population and evolutionary ecology [80]
Spheniscus magellanicus Magellanic penguin Punta Tumbo, Argentina 28 years (1982–2010) Y Population and evolutionary ecology [75]
Apenodytes forsteri Emperor penguin Point Geologie, Antarctica 46 years (1956–2001) N Population and evolutionary ecology [84]
Pagodroma nivea Snow petrel Point Geologie, Antarctica 40 years (1963–2002) N Population and evolutionary ecology [71]
Fulmar glacialoides Southern fulmar Point Geologie, Antarctica 40 years (1963–2002) N Population and evolutionary ecology [71]
Pygoscelis adelae Adelie penguin Ross Island 41 years (1960–2000) N Population and evolutionary ecology [84]
Cephalorhynchus eutropia Chilean dolphin Chile 14 years (1988–2012) Y Population and evolutionary ecology [68]
Phyllotis darwini Darwin’s leaf-eared mouse Chile, Auco 10 years (1987–1996) Y Population and evolutionary ecology [115]
40+ marine species See [88] East coast of South America 38 years (1976–2013) Y Population and evolutionary ecology [85]
Phyllostomidae bats (30 species) See [33] Barro Colorado Island, Panama 10 years (1975–1985) N Population and evolutionary ecology [114]
Geospiza fortis, Geospiza scandens Geospiza fuliginosa Médium ground finch, common cactus finch, small ground finch Daphne Major, Galapagos Islands 30 years (1972–2001) Y Population and evolutionary ecology [22]