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Table 1 Photosynthetic characteristics (Ek: [μmol photon m−2s−1], ETRmax: [μmol e m−2 s−1]; αETR [μmol e m−2 s−1]. [μmol photon m−2 s−1]−1), inhibition by UV radiation compared to PAR, and subsequent recovery in the early developmental stages of Antarctic macroalgae

From: Stress tolerance of Antarctic macroalgae in the early life stages

  Species/
Stage
Depth Ek ETRmax αETR F v /F m UV inhibition Recovery Reference
Ascoseira mirabilis         
  Gametangia Deep sublittoral (17–30 m) 17 ± 5c 3.6 ± 0.4 0.21 ± 0.03 0.48 ± 0.02 30–60 % (4 h) a 73–83 % (4 h) Present study
  Gametangia Upper sublittoral 52 5 0.09 0.40 ± 0.06 20–25 % (1 h)b 100 % (2 d) [5]
  Conceptacles Shallow sublittoral (1 m) 52 ± 14 10.6 ± 4.2 0.20 ± 0.04 ~0.6 0 % (6 h)d 100 % (14 h) [12]
Adenocystis utricularis         
  Zoospores Eulittoral 59 ± 6c 27 ± 3 0.45 ± 0.01 0.64 ± 0.02 5 % (4 h) a 100 % (4 h) Present study
  Zoospores Eulittoral 64 9 0.14 0.46 ± 0.11 37 % (8 h)c 100 % (48 h) [4]
Cystosphaera jacquinotii        
  Receptacles Deep sublittoral 13 ± 6 3.8 ± 1.7 0.28 ± 0.01 ~7.2 15–21 % (2 h)e ~90 % (4 h) [12]
Gigartina skottsbergii         
  Carpospores Sublittoral (5–8 m) 27 ± 9c 7 ± 2 0.27 ± 0.05 0.42 ± 0.32 30–60 % (4 h) a 50–60 % (4 h) Present study
  Carpospores Sublittoral 54 ± 2 6.87 ± 0.18 0.14 0.40 ± 0.03 1–3 % (UV-B; 8 h)b 100 % (2 d) [6]
11–18 % (UV-A; 8 h)b
  Tetraspores Sublittoral 44 ± 21 5.60 ± 0.08 0.14 0.31 ± 0.07 4–7 % (UV-B; 8 h)b 100 % (2 d) [6]
11–21 % (UV-A; 8 h)b
Iridaea cordata         
  Tetraspores Eulittoral 46 ± 6bc 7.4 ± 0.3 0.17 ± 0.03 0.38 ± 0.03 20 % (4 h) a 100 % (4 h) Present study
  Tetraspores Upper sublittoral 57 6.9 0.12 0.47 ± 0.04 ~25 % (UV-B; 8 h)b 100 % (2 d) [35]
~30 % (UV-A; 8 h)b
Porphyra endiviifolia         
  Carpospores Eulittoral 101 ± 19b 14 ± 2 0.14 ± 0.01 0.35 ± 0.01 20 % (4 h) a 100 % (4 h) Present study
  Monospores Upper eulittoral 33 4 0.12 0.49 ± 0.04 0 % (8 h)c 100 % (48 h) [4]
Monostroma hariotii         
  Gametes Eulittoral 295 ± 84a 25 ± 5 0.09 ± 0.01 0.26 ± 0.01 20 % (4 h) a 100 % (4 h) Present study
  Gametes Eulittoral 83 5 0.065 0.29 ± 0.04 0 % (8 h)c 100 % (48 h) [4]
Urospora penicilliformis        
  Zoospores, gametes Upper eulittoral 87 14 0.16 ~0.50 ~37 % (UV-B; 6 h)b 100 % (24 h) [37]
~33 % (UV-A; 6 h)b
  Gametophytes Upper eulittoral 252 44 0.18 ~0.51 ~26 % (UV-B; 6 h)b 94 % (1 h) [37]
~25 % (UV-A; 6 h)b
  1. Results of the present study are marked in bold, and the differences among photosynthetic parameters of the studied species are denoted by different letters (Tukey test; P < 0.05). In all studies, photosynthetic activity was determined by measuring the variable chlorophyll fluorescence of PSII. Radiation levels used a: UV-B = 0.26, UV-A = 0.15, PAR = 2.79; b UV-B = 0.40, UV-A = 4.34, PAR = 4.73; c UV-B = 0.35, UV-A = 4.05, PAR = 4.73; d UV-B = 0.40, UV-A = 4.34, PAR = 2.79; e UV-B = 0.26, UV-A = 1.5, PAR = 2.79